Abraham, Sara. 2005. “Development and Calypso Culture: Caribbean Roots and Canadian Transformations,” Canadian Journal of Development Studies 26, no. 2: 345-362. 

In this article, the author describes the migration and proliferation of Calypso from the Caribbean to Toronto from the late 1960s through to the 1980s, Abraham refers to concerts and competitions where Calypsonians like Lord Protector, who later moved to Toronto, performed, leading to the eventual formation of the Calypso Association of Canada (CAC) in 1982. This association and others illuminate the cultural terrain that sound systems in Toronto navigated in the 1980s.

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